Saturday, June 30, 2007

BACTERIAL GENOMIC TRANSPLANTS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XIuh7KDRzLk

Drawing, taken from NYT.

A discreet abstract in the last number of Science took into account a news the size of an ocean. Craig Venter and his team extracted the naked and intact genome of Mycoplasma mycoides large colony (LC), free of proteins transplanting it to cells of Mycoplasma capricolum. The resulting cells of the transplanted genome were phenotypically identical to M. mycoides LC donor, according to several approaches. According to Venter "after several days of growth and cellular division the original chromosome disappeared being had cells that alone contain transplanted chromosomes". Dr. Hamilton Smith partner of Venter said however, not to be sure if the inserted genome destroyed to the host genome or it continued effective, being assigned to a daughter cell during cellular division. It is clear now that: I) Venter is very near to create synthetic life. Dr. Leroy Hood, co-founder of the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, says "to insert a synthetic functional genome inside a cell and to make it work is to be very near creating new life"

II) The technique will be used to create microbes to design, able to produce artificial fuel and to eliminate toxic products. Cells that eliminated atmospheric CO2 and that will produce methane as fuel. In the LS9 Inc. of San Carlos, California a bacteria produces petroleumlike fuel. Venter has founded Synthetic Genomics, to create alternative fuels to coal and petroleum. LS9, has developed a stump of industrial bacteria that produces hydrocarbons from wastage agriculture remains III) The technique will be key to produce bundles of artificial chromosomes. The largest current synthetic DNA measures 35,000 units lenght. The genome of Micoplasma, consists of 580,000 units. According to Venter in his institute, are near to synthesize the first whole genome of Mycoplasma genitalium. IV) The goal of synthetic biology is to create biochemical processes and to choose the sequence of genes that will direct the processes and will build the first genome of Micoplasma. It is a scientists' goal to select and reorder the genetic machinery developed by the evolution, synthesizing first full genomes in the laboratory and then taking control of them, building at the end alive cells. V) Although at the moment single one is transplant of complete genomes, which comes is amazing. Naked parts of genomes will be replaced by modified artificial blocks. Later, full genomes would be scanned. Finally exact virtual versions of full genomic structure will be obtained without cutting it. In those circumstances transplants of Stem cells happened to the forgetfulness. To take stem cells from patients, to modify its genomes and to almost return them healthy, will be a joyful play.

Monday, June 25, 2007

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1OeAxC4MJ1Y

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YntszpYdEOk


Abstract from NYT. The second presidential veto (06/20/2007), of George Bush (first time: July/2006), imposing severe restrictions to the accomplishment of experiments with embryonic stem cells, has ignited the American prairie, in as much it confronts law's projects of democratic congressmen (attenuating the prohibitions) and to great part of the american public opinion. Like an urban Superman, Bush suddenly appears facing against average world. Surveys made to 1020 American pairs (that put their embryos into the hands of fertility clinics), reveal that 50% of these people, are ready to donate their non-used embryos, to researchers of stem cells. By his side Science, published this week a survey that revealed “a collision between the American state policy and what human ethically responsible wish to do legally with their embryos”, says Ruth Faden, director of the John Hopkins Berman Institutes of Bioethics. As it is known in the fertility clinics they produce always more embryos (of up to 2 weeks), that the necessary ones. Of 400.000 non-used embryos, congealed in American clinics of fertility, at least 100 000 would be available immediately, if the veto were raised tomorrow. One calculates that they lodge : 2000 to 3000 masterful stem cell lines. The present American law, single allows to the state financing those stem cell lines, coming from developed human embryos until August/2001, which only provide 20 stem cell lines. Some republican congressmen, like Mitt Romney, governor of Massachusetts, are in favor of the investigations (because his wife Ann, has Multiple Sclerosis and doctors hope to improved her health with embryonic stem cells). Of another side, the democrats hope to be government to revert the veto. Senator Hillary Clinton of New York speaking in a conference in Washington, has sworn to eliminate the prohibition against embryonic stem cells, if she is chosen. Mr. Barack Obama of Illinois has said: ”single deserves to be president who makes a real promise to American people”. Sean Tipton, spokesman of the Coalition for the Advance of Medical Research, says that Bush “is in the mistaken side of public opinion……still, against members of his own political party”. However, the democrats do not have sufficient votes to annul the veto of Bush.

Apart of this, embryonic stem cells (in nonrestrictive countries), implanted in bodies of patients with diverse diseases, are giving favorable results, foreseen excellent therapies against : Alzheimer, Parkinson, cancer and others. Other stem cells exist : adults stem cells (already differentiated, coming from muscles, bony marrow or other adult tissues, which although can be reprogrammed to other cellular types - single to certain types- are not appreciated because its potential biological development is not great). What hits of Bush, is its clear definition and irrevocable position on the matter “we cannot destroy a human life to save another one… it is anéthical .....human life is sacred”. The basic of this case, is that during fertilization a genetic cross-over takes place at random, being each embryo totally different from another one. When embryonic stem cells are used and one throws to the sweepings the rest of the embryo surplus it is possible we are killing Einstein, Newton or the Mother Teresa. Anyway, Bush, issued an executive order that favors scientists who look for other forms of investigation -not anéthical- for the use of stem cells (reprogramming of adult stem cells, etc). Religious and anti-abortion institutions are against these investigations because they destroy human embryos. In August/2001, Bush announced certain rules: government taxes, to be used to study embryonic stem cells lines, as long as the embryos were destined previously to be destroyed, for obvious reasons. Michael N. Castle, a republican of Delaware, says: “it seems improbable that we change the way of think of the White House, unless a great breakthrough is developed or the veto be reverted by the next president”.

CELULAS MADRE EMBRIONARIAS.

El segundo veto presidencial (06/20/2007), de George Bush (primera véz : Julio/ 2006), imponiendo severas restricciones a la realización de experimentos con células madre embrionarias, ha encendido la pradera americana, en tanto confronta proyectos de ley de congresistas demócratas (atenuando las prohibiciones) y a gran parte de la opinión pública americana. Cual Superman urbano, Bush aparece de pronto enfrentado a medio mundo. Encuestas realizadas a 1020 parejas americanas (que pusieron sus embriones en manos de clinicas de fertilidad), revela que el 50% de estas personas, está dispuesta a donar sus embriones no usados, a investigadores de células madre. Por su lado Science, publicó esta semana una encuesta que develó “una colisión entre la politica estatal americana y lo que humanos éticamente responsables desean hacer legalmente con sus embriones”, dice Ruth Faden, directora del John Hopkins Berman Institutes of Bioethics. Como se sabe en las clinicas de fertilidad siempre se producen más embriones (de hasta 2 semanas), que los necesarios. De 400,000 embriones no usados, congelados en las clinicas de fertilidad americanas, por lo menos 100 000 estarian disponibles de inmediato, si el veto fuese levantado mañana. Se calcula que ellas albergan unas 2000 a 3000 lineas celulares maestras. La presente situación legal americana, solo permite el financiamiento estatal para aquellas lineas de células madre, procedentes de embriones humanos generados hasta agosto del 2001, las cuales apenas proveen unas 20 lineas celulares. Algunos congresistas republicanos, como Mitt Romney, gobernador de Massachusetts, están a favor de las investigaciones (porque su esposa Ann, tiene Esclerosis Múltiple y los médicos esperan tratarla efectivamente con células madre embrionarias). De otro lado, los demócratas esperan ser gobierno para revertir el veto. La senadora Hillary Clinton de New York hablando en una conferencia en Washington, ha jurado eliminar la prohibición contra las células madre embrionarias, si es elegida. Mr Barack Obama de Illinois ha dicho :”solo merece ser presidente quien haga una promesa real a los americanos”. Sean Tipton, vocero de la Coalición para el avance de la Investigación Médica, dice que Bush “está en el lado equivocado de la opinión pública…aún, en contra de miembros de su propio partido politico”. Empero, los demócratas no tienen suficientes votos para anular el veto de Bush.

Por si fuera poco células madre embrionarias (en paises no restrictivos), implantadas en somas de pacientes con diversas enfermedades, estan dando resultados favorables, augurando terapias excelentes contra el Alzheimer, Parkinson, cancer y otros. Existen otras células madre : las adultas (yá diferenciadas, procedentes de músculos, médula ósea u otros tejidos adultos, que aunque pueden ser reprogramadas a otros tipos celulares -solo a ciertos tipos- no son muy apreciadas porque su potencial desarrollo biológico no es muy grande). Lo que impacta de Bush, es su clara definición e indeclinable posición al respecto “no podemos destruir una vida humana para salvar otra…es anético…..la vida humana es sagrada”. La fundamentación de fondo en este caso, es que durante la fertilización se produce un barajamiento genético al azar, siendo cada embrión totalmente diferente de otro. Cuando se emplean células madre embrionarias y se tira a la basura los restos del embrión remanente se puede estar matando a Einstein, Newton o la Madre Teresa. Pese a todo, Bush, dió una orden ejecutiva que favorece a cientificos que busquen otras formas de investigación –no anéticas- para el empleo de células madre (reprogramación de células madre adultas, etc). Lideres religiosos e instituciones antiaborto se oponen a estas investigaciones porque destruyen embriones humanos. En Agosto/2001, Bush anunció ciertas reglas : impuestos, a ser usados para estudiar lineas celulares de células madre embrionarias, siempre y cuando se trate de embriones destinados a ser destruidos, por razones obvias. Michael N. Castle, un republicano de Delaware, dice: “parece improbable que cambiemos el modo de pensar en la Casa Blanca, a menos que se geste un gran descubrimiento o el veto sea revertido por el próximo presidente”.

Saturday, June 23, 2007

DISAPPEARED CHILEAN LAKE



in the mountain range of chilean Andes -taken place by action of glaciers- (2000 km southeast of Santiago de Chile/National Chilean Park: Bernardo O' Higgins/region Magallanes/Patagonia), shone like the picture: calm, furrowed by boats, 30 m of depth, 10 000 m of long (total area: 10 km2), floes of ice floating in their surface. By the way, it lacked fish to be formed by glacial waters.


Nobody knows what happened in April, but at the end of May it shone this way: a gigantic grave without water, 30 meters deep, with floes of ice beached in the dry bottom of a great crater. The bottom, also exhibited 3 enormous cracks. A mighty river (40 meters wide and 6-7 km long), fed by northern glaciers (Bernardo and Lautaro), that ended in the lake also disappeared, hardly leaving as rake a simple creek, said Juan José Romero of the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF)


Now, the task of the geologists is to determine: I) if the enormous mass of water was filtered for underground fissures of the grave, generated by previous earthquakes. Version supported by the presence of abundant volcanic ash coming from historical and recent eruptions of the Volcano Lautaro or: II) if on the contrary, near, melted glaciers, poured in the lake (for effect of climatic changes conditioned by the global heating), elevated the levels of the water of the lake, increasing the pressure, breaking natural dams of ice, rocks or combinations of both, flowing the water toward the ocean pacifies. This theory is the but acceptable, for us. According to the chilean glaciologist Cedomir Marangunic and Frank Wilhelms of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut of polar oceanography, in Bremerhaven "this phenomenon, is not anything exceptional…and if the waters don't end in the ocean, they finish being integrated to the ice."


In Las Salinas'community/Puno/Peru, 4000 m above sea level), every certain time, the disappearance of whole lakes is observed. The difference is that in these cases the remaining icebergs are constituted by salt, whose effects on the ice are very known. Although in the case of the Chilean lake, the water is glacial, we suggested to study the chemical composition of the icebergs surpluses, to the brevity.
LAGO DESAPARECIDO de un FIORDO CHILENO

Hasta Marzo del 2007, un lago glacial ubicado en el centro del fiordo Tempanos, en la cordillera de los Andes -generado por la acción de glaciares- (2000 km al sureste de Santiago de Chile/Parque Nacional Bernardo O’ Higgins/region de Magallanes/Patagonia), lucia como en la foto: aguas tranquilas, surcado por botes, 30 m de profundidad, 10 000 m de largo (área total: 10 km2), témpanos de hielo flotando en su superficie. Por cierto, carecia de peces por estar formado por aguas glaciales.

Nadie sabe que ocurrió en Abril, pero a fines de Mayo lucia asi: una gigantesca fosa sin agua, de 30 metros de profundidad, con témpanos de hielo varados en el fondo seco de un gran cráter. El fondo, exhibia además 3 enormes grietas. Un caudaloso río (40 metros de ancho y 6-7 km de largo), alimentado por glaciares norteños (Bernardo y Lautaro), que desembocaba en el lago tambien desapareció, dejando como rastro apenas un simple riachuelo, dijo Juan José Romero Jefe del servicio forestal chileno (CONAF)

Ahora, la tarea de los geólogos es determinar : I) si la enorme masa de agua se filtró por hendiduras subterráneas de la fosa, generadas por terremotos previos. Versión apoyada por la presencia de abundante ceniza volcánica proveniente de erupciones históricas y recientes del Volcán Lautaro o: II) si por el contrario, glaciares cercanos, derretidos, vertidos en el lago (por efecto de cambios climáticos condicionados por el calentamiento global), elevaron los niveles del agua del lago, incrementando la presión, rompiendo diques naturales de hielo, rocas o combinaciones de ambos, fluyendo el agua hacia el océano pacifico. Esta teoria es la más aceptable, para nosotros. Según el glaciólogo chileno Cedomir Marangunic y Frank Wilhelms del Alfred-Wegener-Institut de Oceanografia Polar de Bremerhaven “este fenómeno, no es excepcional…y, si las aguas no desembocan en el océano, terminan integrándose al hielo”. En la comunidad Las Salinas/Puno/ Perú (4000 msnm), se observa cada cierto tiempo, la desaparición de lagos enteros. La diferencia es que en estos casos los tempanos remanentes estan constituidos por sal, cuyos efectos sobre el hielo son harto conocidos. Aunque en el caso del lago chileno, se trata de agua glacial, sugerimos estudiar la composición química de los tempanos remanentes, a la brevedad.

Monday, June 18, 2007

ALCOHOL and a REASON to LIVE.


While in whole Peru, the consumption per capita of absolute alcohol is 6 to 7 lt., per year (1 million 400 thousand Peruvians, undergo alcoholism and 5- 10% of these, exhibit severe physical dependency), a study made by an international team of researchers (Lancet), showed that Russians were the main alcohol consumers in the world (15, 2 liters of pure alcohol, per capita for year, being Moscow, the alcoholic city but of the world, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica and WHO). While 57% of the consumption in Peru, correspond to distilled drinks and the rest to beer; in Russia it is consumed more and more: zapoi (90% and but of pure alcohol) by 2 or, but continuous days. In spite of these differences, Francisco Bravo Alva, Chief of the Hospital Hermilio Valdizan de Lima, esteem that alcoholism in Peru, constitutes already, a serious problem of public health (cirrhosis, accidents of journey, violence, elevated use of hospitable beds, elevated mortality) and for the Russians is a national problem. While in Peru, rates of prevalence of alcoholism oscillate between 2.68% - 14% (in workers, more than 20%, according to investigations made in urban-marginal areas, by the National Institute of Mental Health “Honorio Delgado-Hideyo Noguchi"), in Russia is 47%, for jobless workers. In Peru the relation man/woman/alcoholism is 4/1, in average. David Leon and colleagues of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine examined registries of 1.750 men died in Izhevsk/Russia (2003-05), comparing them with those of 1.750 -still alive ones- finding that alcohol consumers had 6 times greater chance to die but young (25-54 years), that non-drinkers. Half of the deaths in workers in a Russian typical city can be attributed to severe alcoholism, they wrote, existing indirect evidence that increased Russian mortality at the beginning of the 90s, can be related to severe alcoholism. Part of early russian deaths, is related to ingestion of cheap local products: medicinal antiseptic, eau de cologne, dyes, perfumes, after shave lotions, etc. In this case, their consumers (without work, with poor houses and bad diet), have 9 times greater chance to die. Here, the illegal alcohol is widely consumed, containing some products up to 95% of alcohol by volumen. The life expectancy in Russia is low (2004: 59 years for men and 72 for women). The study argues that lifestyles and political decisions, influence increasing rates of alcoholism in Russia, where in 2005, alcohol was bound to 72% of murders and 42% of suicides. While in Peru the main preoccupation is centered in alcoholic adolescents and tie haltings to their use (26% of total arrests by the police), more than 40% of deaths happened in traffic accidents associated to alcohol consumption. Between the attentions of emergency by accidents and aggressions including homicides, in 7 hospitals of Lima, alcohol use was present in 41.3% of the cases. According to Bravo, the problem has grown because our society is tolerant with the consumption of alcohol, adding that the success of a treatment must have decision to enter and to stay within a treatment program. All specialists agree in that an alcoholic needs the familiar support in the recovery therapies. While in Peru, depressive or anxious states, low tolerance to frustrations or incapacity to manage stress are implied as the greater conditioners, in Russia it is estimated that alcoholism is a disease of the soul. The Russians do not have spiritual goals, does not have an enough reason to live.


ALCOHOLISMO o UNA RAZON PARA VIVIR.


Mientras en el Perú, el consumo per cápita de alcohol absoluto es de 6 a 7 lt., por año (1 millón 400 mil peruanos, sufren alcoholismo y 5-10 %, de estos exhiben dependencia fisica severa), un estudio realizado por un equipo internacional de investigadores (Lancet), demostró que los rusos eran los principales consumidores de alcohol en el mundo (15, 2 litros de alcohol puro, per capita por año, siendo Moscu, la ciudad mas alcohólica del mundo, según la WHO). Mientras el 57 % del consumo en el Perú, corresponde a bebidas destiladas y el resto a cerveza; en Rusia se consume cada vez mas: zapoi (90 % y mas de alcohol puro) por 2 o, mas dias continuos. Pese a las diferencias, Francisco Bravo Alva, Director General del Hospital Hermilio Valdizan de Lima, estima que el alcoholismo en el Perú, constituye yá, un grave problema de salud pública (cirrosis, accidentes de transito, violencia, uso elevado de camas hospitalarias, elevada mortalidad), para los rusos es un problema nacional. Mientras en el Perú, la tasas de prevalencia de alcoholismo oscilan entre 2,68% - 14% (en obreros, más del 20%, según investigaciones realizadas en áreas urbano-marginales, por el Instituto Nacional de Salud Mental "Honorio Delgado - Hideyo Noguchi), en Rusia es de 47%, para obreros sin trabajo. En el Perú la relación hombre/mujer/alcoholismo es 4/1, en promedio. David León y colegas del London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine examinaron registros de 1,750 hombres muertos en Izhevsk/Rusia (2003-05), comparandolos con las de 1,750 -aún vivos- encontrando que los consumidores de alcohol tenian una chance 6 veces mayor de morir mas jovenes (25-54 años), que los no bebedores. Casi la mitad de las muertes en obreros en una ciudad tipica rusa pueden ser atribuidas al alcoholismo severo, escribieron, existiendo evidencia indirecta de que la mortalidad rusa incrementada a principios de los 90, puede estar relacionada a alcoholismo severo. Parte de las muertes tempranas rusas, están relacionadas a la ingesta de productos locales baratos: agua de colonia, tinturas medicinales, antisépticos, perfumes, lociones de afeitar, etc. En este caso, sus consumidores (sin trabajo, con viviendas pobres y mala dieta), tienen una chance 9 veces mayor de morir. Aquí, el alcohol ilegal es ampliamente consumido, conteniendo algunos productos hasta 95% de alcohol por volumen. La esperanza de vida en Rusia es baja (2004 :59 años para hombres y 72 para mujeres). El estudio arguye que los estilos de vida y las decisiones politicas influyen en la génesis del alcoholismo en Rusia, donde en el 2005, el alcohol estuvo ligado a 72% de asesinatos y 42% de los suicidios. Mientras en el Perú la principal preocupación esta centrada en adolescentes alcohólicos con detenciones vinculadas a su uso (26% del total de arrestos por faltas policiales), más del 40% de las muertes ocurridas en accidentes de tránsito están asociadas al consumo de alcohol. Entre las atenciones de emergencia por accidentes y agresiones incluyendo homicidios, en 7 centros hospitalarios de Lima, el uso de alcohol estuvo presente en el 41,3% de los casos. Según Bravo, el problema ha crecido porque nuestra sociedad es permisiva con el consumo del alcohol, añadiendo que para lograr el éxito de un tratamiento debe haber decisión de ingresar y mantenerse dentro de un programa de tratamiento. Todos los especialistas coinciden en que el alcohólico necesita el apoyo familiar en las terapias de recuperación. Mientras en el Perú, los estados depresivos u ansiosos, la baja tolerancia a las frustraciones o la incapacidad para resistir al estrés son implicados como los mayores condicionantes, en Rusia se acepta que el alcoholismo es una enfermedad del alma. Los rusos no tienen metas espirituales, no tienen un porque para vivir.

Sunday, June 17, 2007

GREAT ADVANCES in GENOMICs

I) After analyzing the DNA of 270 people (by means of Copy Number Variation: CNV, technique that measures variations of thousands of letters of DNA), a British team identified vast duplicated or lost regions, being concluded that 2 humans are completely different (Matthew Hurles). Up to now alone we know of anomalies to great scale (chromosomes, duplicated, truncated, or copied) and little of bases or, letters. Each one of us has an unique pattern of earnings and lost complete sections of their DNA, says Hurles of the UK's Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Among others, the copies of certain proteins vary in 12 % -what is huge-. The illnesses are born when being increased the number of copies. Charles Lee of the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, US, says that it is possible that illnesses like Alzheimer and Parkinson, be consequence of it. Although one doesn't know when emerge copies' variations, it is possible that they have to do with errors made during the elaboration of ova and sperms.

II) An additional work, suggests that garbage DNA (junk, for not having well-known biological functions, constituent of 97% of the genome), would exhibit important functions. Before, it was thought that single 22,000 genes (1%, of the genome), were those in charge of building proteins, beside segments of DNA that controlled or regulated the genes. Isidore Rigoutsos leader of the work, affirms that they found transcripted DNA junk to RNA copies (that transports information from DNA to the cellular machinery), in a such way that now the genome exhibits transcriptions of established RNA by way of a net, parts of which elaborate proteins and others show functions ignored until today.

III) The building of the Encode (Encyclopedia of elements of the DNA. Book of Life), a collaborative study of 80 world organizations, in charge of providing the sequences of DNA, of all the species. At the moment they work the sequence of 1% of human genome, integrating 80 different types of experiments (600 million data). Ewan Birney, of the Molecular European Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute, Boss of the Project says: "We know the letters of the genoma, but not the understanding."

IV) The epic to decipher (to read), totally the genomes of diverse organic beings (included the human being), goes being behind. What interests us now is how it works: ¿is the human genome programmed to last single 120 years or, it is infinite? Which is the concept of being healthy, after studying varied individual human genomes? Can we improved artificially the human being’s genomes? In which way influence the illness and the environment in the structure of our genome?. How much this knowledge will teach us to create artificially, non organic self-reproducible coDNAs (as we would call it, derived from organic DNA)?. If it happens as we think : we are imperfect, it will be appropriate to design improved genomes. If until recently the conflict to decipher the genome faced some private managers (Craig Venter) and National Institutes of Salud/USA, what comes (genome’s functionality in the health and the illness), will be wonderful. The Wellcome Trust Marries Control Consortium (WTCCC), studied the DNA of 14 000 Britons (2,000 affected with 7 of the illnesses but world prevalents + 3000 controls healthy volunteers), looking for genetic differences. For it, the WTCCC introduced the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Sep that scan hundred of thousands of markers of DNA. The comparisons case/control identified 24 signals (variant genetics), of independent association (with statistic significance): 1 (loci: gene with but risk of disease), in bipolar disorder, 1, in coronary arterial disease, 9, in disease of Crohn, 3, in reumatoid arthritis, 7, in diabetes type -I- and 3, in diabetes type -II-, 1, in obesity, 1 gene common to both : diabetes type -I- and disease of Crohn, opening new avenues that will permit design customized and effective treatments, understanding better how emerge the disease, what kind of people are at risk, to modify lifestyles, etc. In the future the combinations of genes will be considered to evaluate the risk of life for a particular disease. Many common diseases involve genes, environment and life styles, say to Dr. Mark Walport, director of the Wellcome Trust, that adds that collected data would be of public dominion, immediately.

GRANDES AVANCES en GENOMICA.

I) Tras analizar el DNA de 270 personas (mediante Copy Number Variation :CNV, técnica que mide variaciones de miles de letras de DNA), un equipo británico identificó vastas regiones duplicadas o perdidas, concluyéndose que 2 humanos son totalmente diferentes (Matthew Hurles). Hasta ahora solo se sabia de de anomalias a gran escala (cromosomas duplicados, truncados, o duplicados) y poco de las bases o, letras. Cada uno de nosotros tiene un patron único de ganancias y perdidas de secciones completas de su DNA, dice Hurles del UK's Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Entre una y otra, las copias de determinada proteina varian en un 12%, lo que es enorme. Las enfermedades nacen al incrementarse el número de copias. Charles Lee del Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, US, dice que es posible que las enfermedades de Alzheimer y Parkinson, sean consecuencia de ello. Aunque no se sabe cuando emergen las variaciones de las copias es posible que tengan que ver con errores cometidos durante la elaboración de óvulos y espermatozoides.

II) Un trabajo adicional, sugiere que el DNA basura (junk, por no tener funciones biológicas conocidas, constituyente del 97% del genoma), exhibiria funciones importantes. Antes se pensaba que solo 22,000 genes (1%, del genoma), eran los encargados de construir las proteinas, al lado de segmentos de DNA que controlaban o regulaban los genes. Isidore Rigoutsos, lider del trabajo, afirma que encontraron DNA basura transcrito o copiado a RNA (transporta informacion del DNA a la maquinaria celular), de modo tal que ahora el genoma exhibe transcripciones de RNA establecidas a modo de una red, partes de las cuales elaboran proteinas y otras ostentan funciones por hoy desconocidas.

III) Gesta del Encode (Enciclopedia de elementos del DNA. Libro de la Vida), estudio colaborativo de 80 organizaciones mundiales, encargada de proporcionar las secuencias de DNA, de todas las especies. De momento trabajan la secuencia del 1% del genoma humano, integrando 80 diferentes tipos de experimentos (600 millones de datos). Ewan Birney, del European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute, Jefe del Proyecto dice: “Conocemos las letras del genoma, pero no la comprensión”.

IV) La epopeya por descifrar (leer), totalmente los genomas de diversos seres organicos (incluido el hombre), va quedando atrás. Lo que interesa ahora es como funciona :¿esta programado el genoma humano para durar solo 120 años o, es infinito? ¿Cual es el concepto de estar sano, tras estudiar variados genomas individuales? ¿son perfectibles los genomas? ¿cuanto influye la enfermedad y el medio ambiente en la estructura de nuestro genoma?. ¿Cuánto nos enseñará este conocimiento para crear coDNAs (DNAs artificiales inorgánicos), autorreproducibles?. Si como se espera, somos imperfectos, es congruente diseñar genomas mejorados. Si hasta hace poco la pugna por descifrar el genoma enfrentaba a algunos empresarios privados (Craig Venter) y los institutos nacionales de Salud/USA, lo que se viene (funcionalidad del genoma en la salud y la enfermedad), se entrevé maravilloso. El Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC), ha estudiado el DNA de 14 000 britanicos (2,000 afectos con 7 de las enfermedades mas prevalentes mundiales + 3000 controles voluntarios sanos), buscando diferencias genéticas. Para ello, el WTCCC ha introducido el Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set, que escanea cientos de miles de marcadores de DNA. Las comparaciones caso/control identificaron 24 señales (variantes genéticas), de asociación independiente (P menor de Mark Walport, director del Wellcome Trust, quien añade que los datos obtenidos seran de dominio público inmediato.

Saturday, June 16, 2007

Cancer to be defeated

Picture taken from Spiegel online.

A renewed theory explains why cancers often reappear after an apparently successful treatment: they re-emerged from a little reservoir of trunk cells (phenotypic subset of cancer cells within each tumor, capable of initiating tumor growth :cancer stem cells CSC), hidden in certain areas of the human body), resistant to conventional therapies. In those places these cells sleeps, being practically immortals. It is possible that by means of genetic mutations, they are derived from normal stem cells. These cells allow the reappearing of a similar tumor or more dangerous, than the old one. The cause that these cells carries certain specific superficial proteins (EpCAM high/CD44+ cells), has allowed to Michael Clarke of Stanford University/California and to Piero Dalerba, to mount a technic to identify in histologic samples of tumors of colon to these cells (PNAS). An important concept is that single a little fraction of these cells is vital and dangerous. Chester Southam and Alexander Brunschwig introduced underneath the skin diverse amount of tumor cells. The tumor only appear when 1 million cells were inserted. The concept seems to work in the same way, for leukemias, brain cancer, neck, lung, prostate, stomach, skin, pancreas, bone sarcomas : of Ewing (“Cell Cancer”). Jeremy Rich, of University of Duke/Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, says: “we must destroy the CSC cells”. Today one knows, that: 1) the citostatics destroy single cells of fast multiplication, in as much the CSC cells remains non affected because its reproductive cycle is but slow 2) the CSC cells, produce a special transporting protein, that annuls the effects or, expels the chemoterapics from the cells 3) the CSC cells have capacity to acquire resistance against radiation (Jeremy Rich). 4) A way to eliminate them is to cut them the blood provision in its vascular niches, making them to lose its potential of growth. According to William Matsui (John Hopkins University/School of Medicine/Baltimore), who treat now 30 cancerous patients with these new concepts affirms : 1) Always apply citostatics to diminish the tumor mass, without losing the concept that the patient will not be cured, in as much as CSC cells will not be mainly affected 2) Use in one second phase: Interferon (forever), under the assumption that this inmunomodulator, will prevent the germination or annul the main effects of trunk cells and in certain cases will help to tumor cells' differentiation.

CANCER a PUNTO de ser VENCIDO.

Una renovada teoria explica porque los cánceres a menudo recidivan después de tratamientos aparentemente exitosos: re-emergen de un pequeño reservorio de células troncales (subset de células madre cancerosas, ocultas en áreas estratégicas del cuerpo humano), resistentes a terapias convencionales. En esos lugares las células troncales hibernan o duermen, siendo prácticamente inmortales. Es posible que mediante mutaciones genéticas, deriven de células madre normales. Estas células permiten la reemergencia de un tumor semejante o, más peligroso, que el antiguo. El hecho que porten ciertas proteinas superficiales especificas (EpCAM high/CD44+ cells), le ha permitido a Michael Clarke, de la Universidad de Stanford/ California y a Piero Dalerba, montar una técnica para identificar células troncales en muestras histológicas de tumores del colon (PNAS). Un concepto importante es que solo una pequeña fracción de estas células es vital y peligrosa. Chester Southam y Alexander Brunschwig introdujeron debajo de la piel diversas cantidades de células tumorales. El tumor solo se desarrolló a partir de 1 millón de células insertadas. El concepto parece funcionar del mismo modo, para leucemias, cancer cerebral, de cuello uterino, mama, pulmón, próstata, estómago, piel, páncreas, sarcomas óseos : de Ewing ("Cancer Cell”). Jeremy Rich, de la Universidad de Duke University/Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, dice: "debemos destruir a las celulas troncales”. Hoy se sabe, que :1) los citostáticos destruyen solo células cancerosas de multiplicación rápida, en tanto las troncales son inafectas porque su ciclo reproductivo es mas lento 2) las células troncales producen una proteina transportadora especial, que anula los efectos o, expulsa a los quimioterápicos, de las células 3) estas células tienen capacidad para adquirir resistencia contra la radiación (Jeremy Rich). 4) Un modo de eliminarlas es cortarles el suministro sanguineo en sus nichos vasculares, haciéndoles perder su potencial de crecimiento. Según William Matsui (John Hopkins University/School of Medicine/Baltimore), que trata a 30 pacientes cancerosos con estos nuevos conceptos afirma que : 1) lo esencial es aplicar citostáticos para disminuir la masa tumoral, sin perder el concepto de que la paciente no será curada, en tanto sus células troncales no serán mayormente afectadas 2) emplear en una segunda fase : Interferon (de por vida), bajo el supuesto de que este inmunomodulador, impedirá la germinación o anulará los efectos de las células troncales.

Friday, June 15, 2007

DANGER IN THE SPACE.


Although on small scale the ISS and the space shuttle Atlantis, are exhibiting the possible dangers of future space missions. 1) First was the damage of a superficial area of 10 cm in the tail of the Atlantis soon after its takeoff. By means of a series of spacewalks, 2 cosmonauts struggle until today to cover the area with an insulating blanket, action that will stop the overheating of the tail, during the reentry of the ferry in the terrestrial atmosphere. 2) Today is being made the 3rd space. We already know what happens in these circumstances: much material is lost (hammers, screws, screwdrivers, etc) 3) In the last 2 days failed the Russian computer system, that control the movements of some solar space wings towards the sun. Although happily fixed by Russian engineers, the fault demands that future space missions be integrated by a set of engineers, scientists and technicians 4) Not yet the worse thing is happened: the lost of an astronaut in the space.

Peligros de las misiones espaciales

Aunque a pequeña escala el ISS y el transbordador espacial Atlantis, estan exhibiendo los posibles peligros de futuras misiones espaciales. 1) Primero fué la rasgadura de un area superficial de 10 cm en la cola del Atlantis a poco de su despegue. Mediante una serie de caminatas espaciales, 2 cosmonautas pugnan hasta hoy por cubrir el area con una sabana aislante, acción que impedirá un sobrecalentamiento de la cola, durante la reentrada del transbordador en la atmosfera terrestre. 2) Hoy se está realizando la 3a caminata espacial. Ya sabemos lo que sucede en estas circunstancias: se pierde mucho material (martillos, tornillos, destornilladores,etc) 3) Hace 2 dias se malogró el sistema de computo ruso, que controlaba la dirección de los paneles solares que apuntan hacia el sol. Aunque felizmente fueron arregladas por ingenieros rusos, la falla exige que las futuras misiones espaciales esten integradas por un conjunto de ingenieros, cientificos y tecnicos 4) Aun no ha sucedidó lo peor : la pérdida de un astronauta en el espacio.

Wednesday, June 13, 2007

SPACE SOLAR SUPERWINGS.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Q1FXGH9wFU


In today's dawn, a precise space operation (spacewalks, mechanical precision, coordination with earth controls), allowed astronauts of International Space Station (ISS), to deploy 2 new solar antennas that will convert solar energy in electric. Contemplating the total span of the extended solar wings (240 feet and 2,400 pounds of weight), we imagined the potential installation of hundred of orbiting mirrors in the terrestrial atmospheric space (344 km above Earth), the same ones that reflecting the solar light permanently, would illuminate the Earth, by day and at night. A dream, for the time being. According to James Reilly, focused human spacewalks, allowed the unfurled of solar wings little by little (to avoid that they stick among them). The new coupled wings replaces another deteriorated old couple. The second mission to be carried out in the next days consists on installing thermal protectors blankets near the damaged (10 cm), tail of the shuttle (Atlantis/NASA), in order to protect the ferry against superficial rips during its reentry in the terrestrial atmosphere. 3 additional trips wait to the shuttle, this year.


SUPER-ALAS SOLARES

En la madrugada de hoy, una precisa operación espacial (caminatas espaciales, precisión mecánica, coordinación con mandos de tierra), permitió que astronautas de la Estación Espacial Internacional (ISS), desplegarán 2 nuevas antenas solares, que convertirán energia solar en eléctrica. Contemplando el span total de las alas solares extendidas (240 pies y 2,400 libras de peso), imaginábamos la potencial instalación de cientos de espejos en la órbita atmosférica terrestre (344 km encima de la Tierra), las mismas que reflejando permanentemente la luz solar, iluminarian la Tierra, de dia y de noche. Un sueño, por ahora. Según James Reilly, caminatas espaciales focalizadas, permitieron el desenrollamiento de las alas solares poco a poco (para evitar que se plieguen entre si). El nuevo par reemplaza a otro, antiguo deteriorado. La segunda misión a llevarse a cabo en los próximos dias consiste en instalar sábanas térmicas protectoras cerca de la dañada (10 cm), cola del transbordador (Atlantis/NASA), a fin de protegerlo contra rasgaduras superficiales durante su reentrada en en la atmósfera terrestre. 3 viajes adicionales le esperan al transbordador, este año.

Tuesday, June 12, 2007

Edible vaccines against cholera


A team led by Hiroshi Kiyono, Division of Mucosal Inmunology/University of Tokyo, has created a strain of transgenic rice (genetically modified genetically), capable of acting like effective vaccine against Vibryo cholera, cause of Cholera (severe diarrheas and some 200,000 deaths, each year in Africa, India, Russia, etc). The edible vaccine whose effectiveness, has been demonstrated in mice and requires reinforcements, resists stomach sour juices and maintains its strength along 18 months, to environment temperature. As long as each grain of rice carries variable concentrations of the vaccine (30 ug), there are plans to convert them to powder (placed in the inner of capsules or pills). As long as, the plants of rice don't disperse its pollen massively, are broadly cultivated and carry less risk of contaminating near crops, it is foreseen that they will be useful against botulism, influenza, anthrax, etc. An advantage of oral vaccines is to generate systemic and local immune reactions (mucous of mouth, nose and genital tract), for which reasons they would be also useful against E. coli and the virus of the human inmunodeficiency, of influenza, of SARS, etc. The little interest of big pharmaceutical companies toward these vaccines is the cause of its scarce development.


Vacunas orales contra el Cólera.


Un equipo encabezado por Hiroshi Kiyono de la División : Mucosal Inmunology de la Universidad de Tokio, ha creado una cepa de arróz transgénico (modificado genéticamente), capáz de actuar como vacuna eficáz, contra Vibryo cholera, causante del Cólera (diarreas severas y unas 200,000 muertes, c/año, en Africa, India, Rusia, etc). La vacuna cuya eficacia oral, ha sido demostrada en ratones y requiere refuerzos, resiste los jugos acidos estomacales y mantiene su potencia a lo largo de 18 meses, a temperatura ambiente. En tanto cada grano de arroz porta concentraciones variables de la vacuna (30 ug), hay planes para acondicionarlas en polvo (al interior de cápsulas o pastillas). En tanto, las plantas de arroz no dispersan masivamente su polen, son ampliamente cultivadas y cursan con menos riesgo de contaminar cosechas cercanas, se entrevé que serán útiles contra el botulismo, la influenza , el ántrax, etc. Una ventaja de las vacunas orales es generar reacciones inmunes sistémicas y locales (mucosas de boca, nariz y tracto genital), por lo que tambien serian útiles contra E. coli y los virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, de la influenza, del SARS, etc. El poco interés de las grandes compañias farmacéuticas, hacia estas vacunas es la causa de su escaso desarrollo.

Sunday, June 10, 2007

Full sun energy in 1 km 3 of seawater









3 countries struggle to use nuclear fusion with ends of long energy reach : I) The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) of Oxfordshire/England, in collaboration with 14 countries is requesting funds (800 million Euros to the UE), to build the test reactor: Hiper High Power Laser Energy Research that using potent laser beams would unite for nuclear fusion, atoms of Deuterium and Tritium (isotopes of H, abundant in the seawater), forming Helium. Michael Dunne, director of the RAL, assures that in hardly 1 km 3 of seawater, the equivalent of energy exists (D and T), to all the oil reservations of the world. Limitless energy without environmental contamination. The system consists on impacting powerful rays laser over millimetric areas of capsules that contain D and T, obtaining 100 million grades Celsius, Helium and a colossal profitable energy. The process imitates the sun, where due to the inner great gravitational pressure alone are required 10 million grades Celsius. II) The rival of the RAL is the National Ignition Facility (NIF) –US- of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California. The Hiper of the RAL differs of the NIF in that it uses 2 laser beams : one to compress the capsule and another to fire it. The NIF uses alone the first laser beam. III) The ITER (International Experimental Thermonuclear Reactor/Cadarache/France) and the british JET that innovatively use superconductors magnets to fuse nuclei of hydrogen. The ITER and the JET lead to the projects of laser beams, because their first experimental reactions of nuclear fusion are sustained.

Energia del sol en una botella de agua de mar

3 paises pugnan por emplear la fusión nuclear con fines energéticos de largo alcance. I) El Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) de Oxfordshire (Inglaterra), en colaboración con 14 paises está solicitando fondos (800 millones de euros a la UE), para construir el reactor de prueba : Hiper High Power Laser Energy Research, que empleando potentes rayos laser uniria por fusion nuclear, atomos de Deuterio y Tritio (isótopos de H, abundantes en el agua de mar), formando Helio. Mike Dunne, director del RAL, asegura que en apenas 1 km3 de agua de mar, existe el equivalente energético (D y T), a todas las reservas petroleras del mundo. Energia ilimitada sin contaminación ambiental. El sistema consiste en impactar poderosos rayos laser sobre areas milimetricas de capsulas que contienen D y T, obteniendo 100 millones de grados Celsius, Helio y una colosal energia aprovechable. El proceso imita al Sol, donde debido a la gran presión gravitacional solo se requieren 10 millones de grados Celsius. II) El rival del RAL es el National Ignition Facility (NIF), USA del Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California. El Hiper del RAL se diferencia del NIF, en que emplea 2 rayos laser : uno para comprimir la cápsula y otro para encenderla. El NIF emplea solo el primer rayo laser. III) El ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor/Cadarache/Francia) y el JET británico, que innovadoramente emplean magnetos superconductores para fusionar núcleos de hidrógeno. El ITER y el JET aventajan a los proyectos de rayos láser, porque sus primeras reacciones experimentales de fusión son sostenidas.

Wednesday, June 06, 2007

Weights' measurement and gravity


Photo taken fron Die welt online.
WEIGHTS` MEASUREMENT and GRAVITY.

In fact, the Earth surface, resembles but to the potato than to the one of an orange. For that reason, using the same balance, 1 kg of packed sugar weight approximately 0,1 grams but, in Braunschweig (75 m over the sea level: osl), than in Munich (550 m osl). German researchers today displayed a new map that takes into account the anomalies generated by the force from the terraqueous gravity. In the map (to see graph, above), to greater intensity of the red color, greater force of gravitational attraction (Andreas Lindau of the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt: PTB). Annexed to the map it is counted on a system of accessible calculation by Internet, with which it is possible to determine the gravitational attraction (local gravity calculation), in any place of the world, by means of a click of the mouse. Considering that the acceleration of a body that falls from above downwards in the Earth is : 9,81 m/s, in Munich, its value is: 9,806987 and in Braunschweig -seat of PTB-: 9,812394. To estimate elements of little weight does not generate problems, but 10 kgs: yes (in this case, the differences are of 1 gram, says Andreas Lindau). Conclusion: for precise measurements it is important to know the acceleration exact of the gravity. The PTB, in Germany is the legal system, of weights and measures.

MEDICION de PESOS y GRAVEDAD.

En realidad, la superficie de la Tierra, semeja mas al de una papa que al de una naranja. Por ello, empleando la misma balanza, 1 kilo de azúcar empaquetada pesa aproximadamente 0.1 gramos mas, en Braunschweig (75 m por encima del nivel del mar), que en Munich (550 m penm). Investigadores alemanes presentaron hoy un nuevo mapa que toma en cuenta las anomalias generadas por la fuerza de la gravedad terráquea. En el mapa (ver gráfico), a mayor intensidad del color rojo, mayor fuerza de atracción gravitatoria (Andreas Lindau del
Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt :PTB). Anexo al mapa se cuenta con un sistema de cómputo accesible por internet, con el cual es posible determinar la atracción gravitatoria (cálculo de gravitación local), en cualquier lugar del mundo, mediante un click del mouse. Considerando que la aceleración de un cuerpo que cae de arriba hacia abajo en la Tierra es 9.81 m/s, en Munich, su valor es : 9,806987 y en Braunschweig –asiento del PTB- : 9,812394. Valuar elementos de poco peso no genera problemas, pero 10 kgs . si (en estecaso, las diferencias son de 1 gramo dice Lindau). Conclusión: para mediciones precisas es importante conocer la aceleración exacta de la gravedad. El PTB, en Alemania es el sistema reglamentario legal, de pesas y medidas. .

Tuesday, June 05, 2007

Forgetfulness meaning.


Freud scheme of forgetfulness.
John: George, send to me your new e-mail, please.....
George: Immediately .....
John: Well .....
George: I don’t get to remember the password of my new e-mail…
John: George, if you are not tired or old, try to see a doctor….

After some minutes, George who is neither tired nor old (he is 15 years old), has slept well and prints : 11, 5 seconds in flat races of 100 m without obstacles, struggles to remember his password. What happens here, according to a study made by BA, Kuhl, NM, Dudukovic, I, Kahn and Wagner AD, is that when being in some way related his 2 e-mails (old and new), both appears initially in his areas of memory recognition (anterior cingulate cerebral cortex, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), at the same time, almost in competition. George must choose and their cerebral mechanisms choose to hide (not to eliminate), the old password. It delays some minutes the first time, consuming huge energy in the neuronal networks related to the memory according to revealed images of fMRI, made simultaneously to 20 healthy students (men and women), in the study of Kuhl et al. (Nature Neuroscience). When finally the old password is hidden, taking step the new one, the brain uses less energy. On the basis of it the researchers conclude that the forgetfulnesses is not as said Freud (read his article and see his graphic, above) a form to suppresess negative feelings, or to be evidence of senility or disease. Rather it would be a cerebral strategy, to facilitate the emergency of excellent, useful memories in certain circumstances and to save energy.


Significado de los olvidos.


John: George, envíame tu nuevo e- mail..
George: En seguida…..
John: Y, bien…..
George: No logro recordar el password de mi nuevo e-mail…
John: George, si no estas cansado o viejo, hazte ver por un médico….


Trás algunos minutos, George que no está cansado ni viejo (tiene 15 años), ha dormido bien y estampa 11,5 segundos en carreras sin obstáculos de 100 m planos, logra recordar su password. Lo que sucede, según un estudio realizado por BA, Kuhl, NM, Dudukovic, I Kahn y Wagner AD, es que al estar de algún modo relacionados sus 2 e-mails (antiguo y nuevo), se presentan inicialmente a sus áreas de reconocimiento de memoria alamacenada, (corteza cerebral cingulada anterior, corteza prefrontal dorsolateral y ventrolateral), al mismo tiempo, casi en competencia. George debe elegir y sus mecanismos cerebrales optan por ocultar (no eliminar), el viejo password. Ello demora algunos minutos la primera véz, consumiendo bastante energía en las redes neuronales relacionadas con la memoria según lo revelaron imágenes de fMRI, realizadas simultáneamente a 20 estudiantes sanos (hombres y mujeres), en el estudio de Kuhl et al. (Nature Neuroscience). Cuando por fin el antiguo password es ocultado, dando paso al nuevo, el cerebro emplea menos energía. En base a ello los investigadores concluyen que los olvidos no serian como decía Freud una forma de suprimir sentimientos negativos, o ser evidencia de senilidad o enfermedad. Mas bien seria una estrategia cerebral, para facilitar la emergencia de recuerdos relevantes, útiles en determinadas circunstancias y ahorrar energía.

Monday, June 04, 2007

Hurricane:the point is the eye.


1) According to information appeared in the NYT, billions of dollars would exist to be spent in measures and systems of protection against the devastating effects of hurricanes similar to Rita and Katrina (New Orleans). By suddenly, the Army Corps of Engineers of USA, is concentrated in the adoption of preventive measures,based in risk and reports of trustworthiness, destined to follow the hurricane or, to mimimize its undesirable effects. The same way are followed by National Oceanic, Atmospheric Administration and National Flood Insurance Program, incorporating diverse statistical data in their maps of floods. It is the same method (although improved), initiated by the Weather Bureau in 1959, mainly based on previous historic storm data. However, after the Katrina hurricane, the American Society of Engineers demanded to the Army Corps, to be based less on history and but on statistical probabilities, to use interlaced chains of PCs being formed of data, to hiphotetize future storms (varying the intensity, size, speed and others) or, to mix data to produce diverse wind classes, storms and rains. However, for Ed Link (University of Maryland), these actions are single patches to the damages conducted in the walls, doors and pumps in New Orleans, in as much real storms have complex and unforseeable conducts. By his side Robert S. Young of Western Carolina University, said: ”given the variability of the nature, to design a predictive model is almost impossible”. 2) After analyzing graphs, maps and tables of color (exquisite in specifying the génesis of the several eyes of the hurricane) and the statistical data; for us a luck of contradiction exist between the shown, measures or studies to carry out. 3) Dialectically, the main problem is the eye (eyes), of the hurricane. The preventive measures against the collateral effects do not confront the main problem. For us the elimination of the eyes of the hurricane (on the high seas), is the fundamental thing (To see our article: How to tame hurricanes) 4) the other thing is to elaborate suitable systems of fast evacuation of people and/or the construction of refuges (preventive criteria).

El punto es el ojo de los huracanes.

1) De acuerdo a información aparecida en el NYT, existirian billones de dólares a ser gastados en medidas y sistemas de protección contra los devastadores efectos de huracanes semejantes al Rita y Katrina (Nueva Orleáns). Por de pronto, el Army Corps of Engineers de USA, se concentra en la adopción de medidas preventivas, basadas en riesgo y reportes de confiabilidad, destinadas a seguir al huracán o, miminimizar sus efectos indeseables. El mismo camino siguen National Oceanic, Atmospheric Administration y National Flood Insurance Program, incorporando diversos datos estadisticos en sus mapas de inundaciones. Se sigue asi el mismo método (aunque mejorado), iniciado por el Weather Bureau en 1959, mayormente basado en datos de tormentas previas. Empero, después del huracán Katrina, la Sociedad Americana de Ingenieros exigió al Army Corps, basarse menos en historia y mas en probabilidades estadisticas, emplear cadenas de PCs formando entrelazados de datos, hipotetizar tormentas futuras (variando la intensidad, tamaño, velocidad y otros) o, mezclar datos para producir diversas clases de vientos, tormentas y lluvias. No obstante, para Ed Link (Universidad de Maryland), estas acciones son solo parches a los daños efectuados en las murallas de contención, puertas y bombas en Nueva Orleáns, en tanto las tormentas reales tienen conductas complejas e imprevisibles. Por su lado Robert S. Young del Western Carolina University,opina que :” dada la variabilidad de la naturaleza, diseñar un modelo predictivo es casi imposible”. 2) Trás analizar gráficos, mapas y tablas de color (exquisitos en explicitar la génesis de los varios ojos del huracán) y los estimados estadisticos; para nosotros existe una suerte de contradicción entre lo mostrado y las medidas o estudios a llevar a cabo. 3) Dialécticamente, el problema principal esta en el ojo (ojos), del huracán. Las medidas preventivas contra los efectos colaterales no confrontan el problema principal. Para nosotros la eliminación de los ojos del huracán (en alta mar), es lo fundamental (Ver articulo nuestro: Como domar huracanes) 4) lo otro es elaborar adecuados sistemas de evacuación rápida de personas y/o la construcción de refugios (criterios preventivos).

Sunday, June 03, 2007

Invisible man

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JqSbhDuDt74


Although the current technology, allows to camouflage airplanes (diminishing the reflectión of its surfaces -as much as it is possible-), lately some theoretical physics are contributing ideas for to make people invisible (without they lose their capacity to see), houses, cars, airplanes, etc. The British theoretical physic John Pendry of the London Imperial College, explained the theory of these prototypes (Optical Letters), in the University of Duke, by means of metamaterials employment. 6 months later Pendry published in Science the results of its first experience, in the one he made invisible a sharp two-dimensional object, content to the interior of a cylinder of glass fiber with rings and copper threads (metamaterial), incrusted concentrically in the one. The metamaterial curved the microwaves around the cylinder, while they left the device. If the microwaves are not reconstituted to the exit of the device, the disruptions would discover the hidden object. The researchers look like the behavior of the microwaves, to that of the water flowing around a toothpick, continuing their road behind it. The metamaterials, that catch photons without absorbing them, making that they pass of long, showed negative refraction (change of speed and course of light when passing from a means to another/state with optic laws in reverse).

The propagation of the light through a transparent medium is defined by a refractive index that in the nature is always superior to 1 (its value in the emptiness, where the speed of the light is maximal). Some metamaterials shows refractive indexes smaller than 1, or negative (negative refraction that when avoiding objects, hidden one, anyone be the nature and distance of the sources that illuminate an object). Of another side, most of well-known materials, are opaque to the light because they absorb photons, transforming them into heat. Some few ones like glass are transparents, because the photons pass through them. The orientation of the microwaves in the experiment of Pendry is governable, because they have wave longitudes in centimeters. In the case of the natural light. this usually advances forward. But and as Einstein demonstrated, their rays can also be curved to effects of the gravity emitted by dense bodies. Based on it, the French optic : Sebastien Guenneau, says that although to disappear objects confronting visible light (wave longitude: 400 and 700 of billionth of meter), is difficult, this obstacle will be overcome in one decade. Pendry thinks to make invisible to warships and tanks with radar waves, while they stay static. As long as in the nature, don't exist materials that deviate the light, Frederick Zolla, of the Fresnel-Institut of Marseilles says that "it is necessary to create these metamaterials…the nature has shown us the road". Zola, has published a study that proves than an object wrapped in a metamaterial, stays invisible until one meets with the one. For André Nicolet, another French optic, to make objects invisible to the human eye, depends on the progress of metamaterials.

Hombre invisible

Aunque la tecnología actual, permite camuflar aviones (disminuyendo la reflección de sus superficies -tanto como sea posible-), últimamente algunos fisicos teóricos estan aportando ideas para tornar invisibles personas (sin que pierdan su capacidad de ver), casas, carros, aeroplanos, etc. El fisico teórico británico John Pendry del London Imperial College, explicó la teoria de estos prototipos (Optical Letters), en la Universidad de Duke, mediante el empleo de metamateriales. 6 meses después Pendry publicó en Science los resultados de su primera experiencia, en la que tornó invisible un objeto bidimensional, contenido al interior de un cilindro de fibra de vidrio con anillos e hilos de cobre (metamaterial), incrustados concentricamente en el. El metamaterial curvó las microondas alrededor del cilindro, mientras salian del dispositivo. Si las microondas no son reconstituidas a la salida del dispositivo, las disrupciones descubririan al objeto oculto. Los investigadores semejan la conducta de las microondas, a la del agua fluyendo alrededor de un palillo, continuando su camino detras de este. Los metamateriales, caracterizados por atrapar fotones sin absorberlos, haciendo que pasen de largo, ostentan refracción negativa (cambio de velocidad y dirección de la luz al pasar de un medio a otro/estado con leyes ópticas en reversa).

La propagación de la luz en un medio trasparente es definido por un indice refractivo, que en la naturaleza siempre es superior a 1 (su valor en el vacio, donde la velocidad de la luz es maxima). Algunos metamateriales ostentan indices refractivos menores a 1, o negativos (refracción negativa que al evitar objetos, los oculta, cualquiera sea la naturaleza y distancia de las fuentes que iluminan un objeto). De otro lado, la mayoria de materiales conocidos, son opacos a la luz porque absorben fotones, convirtiendolos en calor. Unos pocos como el vidrio son trasparentes, porque los fotones pasan a través de ellos. La orientación de las microondas en el experimento de Pendry es manejable, porque tienen longitudes de onda en centimetros. En el caso de la luz natural. esta normalmente avanza hacia delante. Empero y como lo demostrara Einstein, sus rayos tambien pueden ser curvados a efectos de la gravedad emitida por cuerpos densos. En base a ello, el óptico francés : Sebastien Guenneau, opina que aunque desaparecer objetos confrontando luz visible (longitud de onda : 400 y 700 billonesima de metro), es difícil, este obstáculo sera superado en una decada. Pendry piensa tornar invisibles a barcos de guerra y tanques con ondas de radar, mientras se mantengan estáticos. En tanto en la naturaleza, no existen materiales que desvien la luz, Frederick Zolla, del Fresnel-Institut de Marsella opina que “es necesario crear estos metamateriales…la naturaleza ha mostrado el camino”. Zola, ha publicado un estudio que prueba como un objeto envuelto en un metamaterial, se mantiene invisible hasta que uno se topa con el. Para Andre Nicolet, otro óptico francés, hacer invisible objetos al ojo humano, depende del progreso de los metamateriales.

Saturday, June 02, 2007

New (amazing) face.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbZ4SKCae4g


What is going on to Isabelle Dinoire (38), the French woman to whom was made the first partial transplant of face (coming from a dead, the 2005), to consequence of a dog's bite, that extirpated entirely the chin and part of her nose?



Top/Center : Isabelle, before the transplant.

She goes well and her process of rehabilitation exceeds all the expectations. So, said the well known french surgeon Bernard Devauchelle in a TV interview in Rostock/Germany during the Annual Congress of the German Society of Maxillo-Facial Surgery. The face of Isabelle, who now keeps great similarity with the original, is able to express emotions in agreement with her face gestures.

Isabelle :Now (Pictures taken from Die Welt online).

Isabelle takes a normal life and can contemplate herself without problems in the mirror. With the exception of some injections of Botox, to restore the labial symmetry, Isabelle has not needed but face operations. He receives medication antirejection of the transplant (for her entire life).

Nueva (maravillosa), cara.


Que fué de la vida de Isabelle Dinoire (38), la francesa a quien le realizaron el primer trasplante parcial de cara (proveniente de un muerto, el 2005), a raiz de la mordedura de un perro que le extirpó totalmente la barbilla y parte de la nariz?. Va bien y su proceso de rehabilitación excede todas las expectativas. Asi lo expresó el conocido cirujano francés Bernard Devauchelle en una entrevista TV, en Rostock/Alemania durante el Congreso Anual de la Sociedad Alemana de Cirugia Maxilo-Facial. La cara de Isabelle, que guarda ahora gran similaridad con la original, es capáz de expresar sus emociones en concordancia con sus gestos faciales. Isabelle lleva una vida normal y puede contemplarse sin problemas en el espejo. Con la excepción de algunas inyecciones de Botox, para restablecer la simetría labial, Isabelle no ha necesitado mas operaciones faciales. Recibe medicación de por vida antirrechazo del trasplante.

Friday, June 01, 2007

First human diploid DNA genome, deciphered.

Left : Photo an text, taken fron NYT


The standard reference of the human genome (still effective), includes a mixture of anonymous donors coming from Buffalo (incapable now to be correlated with medical information of 1 single person). However, in the next months the scientific world will have the 2 first complete human genomic sequences (those of James D. Watson and J. Craig Venter, ex- president of Celera Corporation, a private Human Genome Project, rival of the governmental American). I) In Celera, Venter (2001) worked a small version of his genome and now he is completing it in his Institute of Rockville-Md, keeping the information in GenBank, a public database. Venter said that his genome was assembled of scratch, identifying more differences than the hoped ones, including them in unique units of DNA: extras or absentees. “We have underestimated the extension of the human variation”, said Venter. The real thing is that the genome of Venter could get to become the new human standard genome of reference. II) The complete genome of Watson (codiscoverer of the structure of the DNA and first Director of the Human Project Genome, completed the 2003), was deciphered -using a sequence machine created by 454 Life Sciences- in hardly 2 months to a cost of less than $1 million “opening the doors towards a personalized genomic medicine”, said Michael Egholm, vice president of investigation of 454 LS. 2 days ago, Watson received from hands of Richard A. Gibbs, Director of Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine and of Jonathan M. Rothberg, 454 founder of Life Sciences, the data of his copy genome registered in 2 DVDs. Watson, said: “I am astonished to see my genome” adding that he will make it available to all, so that they study it (with the only exception of his gene of Apolipoprotein E, whose state prearranges to the disease of Alzheimer).

Watson wishes that more individual genomes be sequenced to understand better mental diseases (schizophrenia), urging to others to place the data of their complete genomes in registries, so that their physical and mental qualities be correlated with their DNAs. Yesterday in Houston, Watson urged to that but individual human genomes become public including the one of successful people or others of medical interest. Now Watson, can ask to any pharmaceutical company to prepare his antihypertensive or chemotherapy medicines custom-made to him (he had skin cancer), to choose environment to live or to recreate adequate lifestyles to the characteristics of his genome. By the way Watson and Venter run risks when putting their genomes to disposition of the public (mutations causes of diseases or unfavorable imperfections for him and their relatives). The genomes of both are diploids (DNA, inherited of both parents. The genome of the Human Project did not capture these differences). A 3,5% of the genome of Watson could not to be correlated with the present standard genome of reference, because they had to extend his DNA -letting it grow in bacterias- where they could lose many regions because of the toxic effect of the DNA for the bacteria. Innovatingly, the 454 sequence machine, bypass entirely the bacterial stage, releasing to the sequences of this bias. Venter said that it is possible that in 454 LS company, short lengths of Watson’s DNA, were assembled comparing it with the standard sequence of reference, being also possible that they could not have detected certain structural errors. Egholm says that improving the 454 sequence machine will be made possible to obtain genomes to $10.000, in few years. Life Sciences and Solexa Inc.(filial of Illumina) works this aim.

Descifrado el primer genoma individual humano diploide.

La referencia standard del genoma humano (aún vigente), comprende una mixtura de donadores anóminos procedentes de Buffalo (incapáz de ser correlacionada con información médica de 1 sola persona). Empero, en los próximos meses el mundo cientifico dispondrá de las 2 primeras secuencias genómicas humanas completas (las de James D. Watson y J. Craig Venter, ex presidente de Celera Corporation, que trabajó un Proyecto Genoma Humano privado, rival del gubernamental americano). I) En Celera Venter, trabajó una pequeña versión de su genoma (2001) y ahora la está completando en su Instituto de Rockville, guardando la información en GenBank, una base de datos pública. Venter dijo que su genoma fue ensamblado del scratch, identificando más diferencias que las esperadas, incluyéndolas en unidades únicas de DNA : extras o, ausentes. “Hemos subestimado la extensión de la variación humana”, dijo Venter. Lo real es que el genoma de Venter podria llegar a convertirse en el nuevo genoma standard humano de referencia. II) El genoma completo de Watson (codescubridor de la estructura del DNA y primer Director del Proyecto Genoma Humano, completado el 2003), fué descifrada empleando una máquina secuenciadora creada por 454 Life Sciences- en apenas 2 meses a un costo de menos de $1 million “abriendo las puertas hacia una medicina genómica personalizada”, dijo Michael Egholm, vice presidente de investigación de 454 LS. Hace 2 dias, Watson recibió de manos de Richard A. Gibbs, Director of Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine y de Jonathan M. Rothberg, fundador de 454 Life Sciences, los datos de su genoma en copias registradas en 2 DVDs. Watson, dijo : “Estoy asombrado de ver mi genoma” agregando que lo pondrá a disposición de todos, para que lo estudien (con la única excepción de su gene de Apolipoprotein E, cuyo estado predispone a la enfermedad de Alzheimer).

Watson desea que se secuencien más genomas individuales para comprender mejor las enfermedades mentales (esquizofrenia), urgiendo a otros a colocar los datos de sus genomas completos en registros, de modo que sus cualidades fisicas y mentales sean correlacionadas con su DNA. Ayer en Houston, Watson instó a que mas genomas humanos individuales se hagan publicos incluyendo el de personas exitosas u otras de interes médico.Ahora Watson, podra solicitar a cualquier compañía farmacéutica le preparen sus medicamentos antihipertensivos o quimioterápicos a la medida (tuvo cáncer de piel), escoger medios ambientes para vivir o recrear estilos de vida mejor adpatados a las caracteristicas de su genoma. Por cierto Watson y Venter corren riesgos al poner sus genomas a disposición del público (mutaciones causantes de enfermedades o imperfecciones desfavorables para ellos y sus parientes). Los genomas de ambos son diploides (DNA, heredado de ambos padres. El genoma del Proyecto Humano no capturó estas diferencias). Un 3.5 % del genoma del Watson no podria ser correlacionado con el genoma standard actual de referencia, porque se tendria que ampliar su DNA -haciendolo crecer en bacterias- donde podrian perderse muchas regiones del DNA por ser tóxicos a las bacterias. Innovadoramente, el secuenciador 454, bypassea enteramente el estadio bacteriano, liberando a las secuencias de este sesgo. Venter dijo que en la compañía 454, habrian ensamblado el genoma de Watson comparando cortas longitudes de su DNA, con la secuencia standard de referencia, siendo posible que no pudiesen haber detectado ciertos errores estructurales. Egholm dice que mejorando la maquina secuenciadora 454 se podrán lograr genomas a $10,000, en pocos años. En ello trabajan 454 Life Sciences y Solexa Inc. (filial de Illumina Inc).